This case is the first urban regeneration project of Seoul. The district is specialized in sewing industry and its natural environmental feature, the quarry is remarkable. After the redevelopment district designation be lifted, the neglected spaces were becoming worse so that the residents were getting harder to maintain their job and lives. Therefore, the district became the target of regeneration project and public experts were thrown in this project. After several months, the residents became the experts of their village and started changing their neighborhood. Also, the district became safer and threatening cliff became the observatory and another one became the landmark. Now, no more experts from outside, the resident experts are maintaining the sustainable regeneration district, Changsin Sungin.
Development Scale: District
Total Development Cost: $20 billion
Total Land Area: 830,130 ㎡
Total Development Area: 830,130 ㎡
Area Type: Urban Area - Urban Residential Area
Start Date: 2014/05/01
Opening Date: 2017/12/01
Planning Approval: November 12th, 2014 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport gave approval to 창신숭인 도시재생활성화계획(Changshin-Sungin Urban Regeneration Plan)
Lead Developer: Seoul city
Consultants: 신중진 the professor of Architecture, Sungkyunkwan University, 조범래 from SH corporation
The overall industrial status was not good. The decline of sewing industry and deterioration of commercial alley were going on. Decline of sewing industry: Poor production environment and manpower shortage, growth of China and other foreign sewing industry with less personnel expenses, rivalry between small enterprises and several other factors weaken the competitiveness of the sewing industry Deterioration of commercial alley: Persist of population outflow (mainly the young) created backward commerce system of the village.
The sewing industry, specialized thing was concentrated in this district from late 1970s, when Dongdaemun became the mecca of fashion industry. Most of the residents were in sewing industry and small scale factories were all over the district.
Steep geographical features are all over the district related to quarry right next to there. Also showing the evidence of quarry, huge stone cliff is surrounding the residential area.
Hanyang wall is the left side boundary of the project district, and the quarry was used for building the Japanese Government-General of Korea and old Seoul station. Also, Changsin Suning district is the space full of historical cultures. Park Sookeun, Nam June Paik, Jeon Tae-il and many other people in history were related and lived.
As the first urban generation project of Seoul, precedent studies are difficult to find. The one thing is the Community Development Corporations (CDCs) of USA, kind of a non-profit organization work for housing of low income group of society. Similarly, Changsin Sungin planned CRC, Changsin-sungin Regeneration Cooperation, to maintain the sustainable regeneration by residents.
‘낙산을 품고 흐르는 행복마을’ 창신숭인 (Changsin & Sungin, the Happy Village Flowing with Naksan) https://uri.seoul.go.kr/surc/propProgress/businessAreaInfo.do?bsns_id=SP2014001
1. Residential environment regeneration: Creating an energy independent building with a clean aesthetic Safe and flaneurable street environment Comfortable and comfortable activity space 2. Sewing Regeneration: Completion of a completed value chain and infrastructure Support for start-ups and advancement of management Attracting outstanding human resources through environmental improvement 3. Things into Tourism Assets: A space with a variety of stories. Something everyone wants to experience. Koreans and foreigners who are constantly visiting.
In October 2013, the New Town area was removed due to opposition from residents. During the designated period as a New Town, the area was neglected due to various restrictions and finally declined complexly. The sewing industry, a region-based industry, has continued to stagnate due to intensifying competition with foreign production and aging workers. The number of people living has decreased and the shrinkage of local businesses followed. Conflicts between residents continued for several years due to the confrontation between the pros and cons of the redevelopment. Real "Urban Regeneration" led by residents was needed to solve this problem.
To attract tourists and visitors : Make connection between Dongdaemun, DDP and sewing factories of Changsin-dong, Emphasize placeness of the village next to Hanyang Wall, Utilize abundant own historical resources City scenery improvement : Operate the landmark facility of Changsin-Sungin, especially the quarry
To improve dilapidated dwelling : Give public supply to help resident to improve their house on their own To provide equal opportunity : Make small scale network and avoid making alienated residents and houses
Especially about the CRC system, 2014~5 Expert-centered urban regeneration support center operations 2016~7 Residnets centered urban regeneration support center operations After 2017 Perfect conversion into residents' local regeneration companies
Designing new buildings based on anchor programs that highlight local characteristics Reorganizing existing narrow and dangerous alleys and creating space for children - make overall pleasant residential spaces
Land Uses: Residential areas Programs: Public sewing workshop, Sewing history museum, Memorial House, Residents public facilities, Observatory
2014, the first step: the whole plan were established, urban regeneration village school for resident education and public contests for naming and designing new architectures were held 2015~2017, the second step: new jobs occurred by regeneration project and residential environment improvement project started to be seen, and the regeneration support center started to convert the manager from experts to residents 2018~2020, the third step: real residents lead the project and maintain preceded projects, public support for residents' own regeneration project maintenance 2020~2024, the final step: the stability of the regeneration project is secured, and become the preceding model of self-supporting urban regeneration project.
Development has already been completed. Changsin-sungin Regeneration Cooperative (CRC), a resident-centered local regeneration company, has been working as a resident-centered village company that utilizes local assets to create jobs and profits and promote sustainable regeneration. CRC is concerned in Changsin Sungin Urban Regeneration guidance program and Urban regeneration education project, Nam June Paik Memorial House and Cafe, and Changsin Sungin Quarry Observatory (Café Camel) management.
How people who wanted to protect their residences could learn act, how the city Seoul and the government provided support to them, and how these residents could truly become owners of the neighborhood.
This case made a better space for residents who cannot leave their village and made a better space for whole city. As the time and history flows, industry and people also change. Old factors, I mean thing falling behind should be changed to be better for others. This is relevant for residents, especially whom in the sewing industry, and also visitors.
Maybe, the anchors for visitors are the most successful things. Iumpium sewing history museum, and quarry observatory.
I think active participation of residents has become the pillar of this project. The project may have gained real meaning as residents became educated and built their own villages, created small groups to communicate, became docent of museums and baristas of cafes.
I think it was well formed as the first example of urban regeneration and as an urban regeneration project itself. However, interviews with some residents after the project ended suggest that "the underlying problem is not solved, so houses are still old, and the outflow of residents continues due to insufficient infrastructure." It's not that the investment was worthless. It is no wonder that such opinions appear because they were residents who were at odds over the pros and cons of redevelopment in the first place. However, it would have been a more valuable investment if the project had been carried out as a project to improve really residents' lives rather than preserving history and culture.
서울특별시. (2015.02.26). 서울특별시 종로구 도시재생선도지역 근린재생형 활성화계획 손경주. (2018). 주민이 주인이 되어 다시 찾은 창신숭인. PLANNING AND POLICY, 60-69.